Mirror physics

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Mirror physics

In physicsmirror matteralso called shadow matter or Alice matteris a hypothetical counterpart to ordinary matter. Modern physics deals with three basic types of spatial symmetry : reflectionrotationand translation.

The known elementary particles respect rotation and translation symmetry but do not respect mirror reflection symmetry also called P-symmetry or parity.

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Of the four fundamental interactions — electromagnetismthe strong interactionthe weak interactionand gravity —only the weak interaction breaks parity. They suggested a number of experiments to test if the weak interaction is invariant under parity.

These experiments were performed half a year later and they confirmed that the weak interactions of the known particles violate parity. However, parity symmetry can be restored as a fundamental symmetry of nature if the particle content is enlarged so that every particle has a mirror partner.

The theory in its modern form was described in[5] although the basic idea dates back further. In this way, it turns out that mirror reflection symmetry can exist as an exact symmetry of nature, provided that a "mirror" particle exists for every ordinary particle. Parity can also be spontaneously broken depending on the Higgs potential.

The Awesome Physics Behind How Mirrors Work

Mirror matter, if it exists, would need to use the weak force to interact with ordinary matter. This is because the forces between mirror particles are mediated by mirror bosons. With the exception of the gravitonnone of the known bosons can be identical to their mirror partners. The only way mirror matter can interact with ordinary matter via forces other than gravity is via kinetic mixing of mirror bosons with ordinary bosons or via the exchange of Holdom particles. Mirror particles have therefore been suggested as candidates for the inferred dark matter in the universe.

In another context [ which? In such a scenario, mirror fermions have masses on the order of 1 TeV since they interact with an additional interaction, while some of the mirror bosons are identical to the ordinary gauge bosons. In order to emphasize the distinction of this model from the ones above [ which? Mirror matter could have been diluted to unobservably low densities during the inflation epoch.

Sheldon Glashow has shown that if at some high energy scale particles exist which interact strongly with both ordinary and mirror particles, radiative corrections will lead to a mixing between photons and mirror photons. Another effect of photon—mirror photon mixing is that it induces oscillations between positronium and mirror positronium. Positronium could then turn into mirror positronium and then decay into mirror photons.

The mixing between photons and mirror photons could be present in tree level Feynman diagrams or arise as a consequence of quantum corrections due to the presence of particles that carry both ordinary and mirror charges.

In the latter case, the quantum corrections have to vanish at the one and two loop level Feynman diagrams, otherwise the predicted value of the kinetic mixing parameter would be larger than experimentally allowed.

An experiment to measure this effect is currently being planned. Mirror matter may also be detected in electromagnetic field penetration experiments [22] and there would also be consequences for planetary science [23] [24] and astrophysics.

Mirror matter could also be responsible for the GZK puzzle. Topological defects in the mirror sector could produce mirror neutrinos which can oscillate to ordinary neutrinos.

If mirror matter is present in the universe with sufficient abundance then its gravitational effects can be detected.

Because mirror matter is analogous to ordinary matter, it is then to be expected that a fraction of the mirror matter exists in the form of mirror galaxies, mirror stars, mirror planets etc.

These objects can be detected using gravitational microlensing. In such cases one should be able to detect periodic Doppler shifts in the spectrum of the star. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. June Jonathan is a published author and recently completed a book on physics and applied mathematics.

To unlock all 5, videos, start your free trial. Physics mirrors are where light can be reflected and reconvened to form images. Two different types of mirror are concave and convex mirror with different properties. Two types of image formed by mirrors are real image and virtual image. Real image is formed when the light reconvenes and always inverted i.

Virtual image is formed when the light goes through and does not reconvene and is always erect i. So let's talk about mirrors and image formation now before I get too much into this I really want to talk about what it means to be an image. Alright so what happens is we take an object and we put it in front of a mirror the light reflects off of that object then goes and reflects off of the mirror and then the important thing is what happens to the light after it reflects off the mirror.

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Alright the idea is that sometimes this light will reflect off the mirror and then come back together again so that means that it's going to reform that same image. It's going to look just like it did when it reflected off of the object and so that's what we mean by an image it looks like an object. Now if light actually goes through the image so that it reflects off and it comes back through and reconvenes then we call that image real.

Okay that image is real, if on the other hand it just looks like there's an image and in fact the light never reconvened at all then that image will be called virtual okay. We'll find that if you use only a single mirror or a single lens then real images are always inverted that means they're always up-side-down so you're looking through the lens the object is right side up, the image is up-side-down alright.

Virtual images on the other hand will always be erect or right side up okay if there's a single mirror or a single lens. And then of course we can have magnification, magnification is always given by the ratio of how far the image is from the mirror divided by how far the object is from the mirror.

Alright so let's just do this real quickly with the simplest case, that of a plane mirror. Alright a plane mirror goes like this, we've got light coming from the object and it just reflects straight back, so there's one of them. Let's draw another one, well I've got light from the object and then it just reflects and remember angle of reflection equals angle of incidence so it's going to go like that. Now here's the question, are these 2 rays ever going to recombine?

Well it certainly doesn't look like it right they're just getting further and further apart. So what would I mean by an image? I mean I stand in front of a plane mirror I see an image, here's the idea, when I stand in front of a plane mirror I see these two light rays but my brain doesn't automatically think about the mirror being there it just says okay there's those two lights rays.A mirror is an object that reflects light in such a way that, for incident light in some range of wavelengths, the reflected light preserves many or most of the detailed physical characteristics of the original light, called specular reflection.

mirror physics

This is different from other light-reflecting objects that do not preserve much of the original wave signal other than color and diffuse reflected light, such as flat-white paint. The most familiar type of mirror is the plane mirrorwhich has a flat surface. Curved mirrors are also used, to produce magnified or diminished images or focus light or simply distort the reflected image. Mirrors are commonly used for personal groomingviewing oneself where they are also called looking-glassesviewing the area behind and on the sides on motor vehicles while driving, for decoration, and architecture.

They are often used by technicians, mechanics and dentists for viewing around and behind obstructions. Mirrors are also used in scientific apparatus such as telescopes and laserscameras, and industrial machinery. Most mirrors are designed for visible light ; however, mirrors designed for other wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation are also used. There are many types of glass mirrors, each representing a different manufacturing process and reflection type. An aluminium glass mirror is made of a float glass manufactured using vacuum coatingi.

A low aluminium glass mirror is manufactured by coating silver and two layers of protective paint on the back surface of glass. A low aluminium glass mirror is very clear, light transmissive, smooth, and reflects accurate natural colors. This type of glass is widely used for framing presentations and exhibitions in which a precise color representation of the artwork is truly essential or when the background color of the frame is predominantly white.

A safety glass mirror is made by adhering a special protective film to the back surface of a silver glass mirror, which prevents injuries in case the mirror is broken. This kind of mirror is used for furniture, doors, glass walls, commercial shelves, or public areas. A silkscreen printed glass mirror is produced using inorganic color ink that prints patterns through a special screen onto glass.

Various colors, patterns, and glass shapes are available. Such a glass mirror is durable and more moisture resistant than ordinary printed glass and can serve for over 20 years. This type of glass is widely used for decorative purposes e. A silver glass mirror is an ordinary mirror, coated on its back surface with silver, which produces images by reflection.

This kind of glass mirror is produced by coating a silver, copper film and two or more layers of waterproof paint on the back surface of float glass, which perfectly resists acid and moisture.

A silver glass mirror provides clear and actual images, is quite durable, and is widely used for furniture, bathroom and other decorative purposes. Decorative glass mirrors are usually handcrafted. A variety of shades, shapes and glass thickness are often available. A beam of light reflects off a mirror at an angle of reflection equal to its angle of incidence if the size of a mirror is much larger than the wavelength of light.

This law mathematically follows from the interference of a plane wave on a flat boundary of much larger size than the wavelength. Objects viewed in a plane mirror will appear laterally inverted e. To be precise, it reverses the object in the direction perpendicular to the mirror surface the normal. Because left and right are defined relative to front-back and top-bottom, the "flipping" of front and back results in the perception of a left-right reversal in the image. If you stand side-on to a mirror, the mirror really does reverse your left and right, because that's the direction perpendicular to the mirror.

Looking at an image of oneself with the front-back axis flipped results in the perception of an image with its left-right axis flipped.

When reflected in the mirror, your right hand remains directly opposite your real right hand, but it is perceived as the left hand of your image.

Why Do Mirrors Flip Left & Right (but not up & down)?

When a person looks into a mirror, the image is actually front-back reversed, which is an effect similar to the hollow-mask illusion. Notice that a mirror image is fundamentally different from the object and cannot be reproduced by simply rotating the object.

For things that may be considered as two-dimensional objects like textfront-back reversal cannot usually explain the observed reversal. In the same way that text on a piece of paper appears reversed if held up to a light and viewed from behind, text held facing a mirror will appear reversed, because the observer is behind the text.With mirrors around us every day, we tend to take them for granted, but what exactly is happening on a scientific level when we peer into one?

And on that note, do you know the physics involved in why we see a mountain range reflected in the clear, calm lake below? Essentially, a mirror is made up of a shiny piece of extremely smooth metal, kept in place with a glass front and a thin layer of backing usually aluminum.

Key to the way a mirror functions is how the physics of light behave in our Universe: the same laws that make a banana appear yellow and a piece of paper appear white. The colour of something is defined by which colours of the visible spectrum it absorbs or reflects.

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Our aforementioned banana, for example, absorbs every colour except yellow - so the yellow light returns to our eyes unless there's no light, in which case the banana is as black as everything else.

White objects, meanwhile, reflect all the colours of the visible spectrum, and thus appear colourless. The metals inside mirrors perform the same trick, reflecting all the colours of the visible spectrum, but the difference is they're ultra-smooth on a microscopic level.

A piece of paper might seem smooth to you, but it's not even in the same smoothness league as a mirror, and that's how a mirror image is formed: all of the light is bouncing straight back in the direction it's just come from.

Anna Green over at Mental Floss uses the analogy of a bunch of tennis balls thrown at a wall, which will usually bounce back in the same direction they came from.

How Mirrors Work

Try the same exercise on a craggy rock face, and the balls will spin off in all kinds of directions. A metal and glass mirror is the wall and the balls are the beams of light hitting our eyes. The same effect is happening when ripples hit a pond - the surface is no longer flat, the light is no longer bouncing straight back, and you can no longer see your face when you peer into it.

Ever since we've been able to perfect the manufacture of mirrors, they've become useful in science, transportation and many other fields. And if you're wondering why mirrors flip the image they see, well It's we who are flipping the image when we put on a t-shirt, turn a sign around, or hold up our hand. All the mirror is doing is reflecting exactly what's placed in front of it, without any flipping taking place at all. For more on that, watch this:.A mirror is a reflective surface that does not allow the passage of light and instead bounces it off, thus producing an image.

The most common mirrors are flat and called plane mirrors. These mirrors are made by putting a thin layer of silver nitrate or aluminium behind a flat piece of glass. When you place an object in front of a mirror, you see an image of the same object in the mirror.

The object is the source of the incident rays, and the image is formed by the reflected rays. An image formed by reflection may be real or virtual. You are fooled into seeing an image! A virtual image is right side up upright. In flat, or plane mirrors, the image is a virtual image, and is the same distance behind the mirror as the object is in front of the mirror. The image is also the same size as the object. These images are also parity inverted, which means they have a left-right inversion.

The way that we can predict how a reflection will look is by drawing a ray diagram. These diagrams can be used to find the position and size of the image and whether that image is real or virtual. These are the steps you follow to draw a ray diagram:.

The angle in which a light ray hits the mirror is the same angle in which it will be reflected back. If, for example, a light ray leaves the top of an object travelling parallel to the principal axis, it will hit the mirror at a 0 degree angle, and be reflected back at 0 degrees. When this happens, we say the ray hit the mirror normally. If the light ray hit the object at a 30 degree angle, it will be reflected back at a 30 degree angle.

A mirror is a reflective surface that light does not pass through, made by a layer of silver nitrate or aluminium behind piece of glass. A mirror is a reflective surface that light does not pass through, but bounces off of and this produces an image. Mirrors are made by putting a thin layer of silver nitrate or aluminium behind a flat piece of glass. When you place an object in front of a mirror, you see the same object in the mirror.

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This image that appears to be behind the mirror is called the image. A real image occurs when light rays actually intersect at the image, and is inverted, or upside down. A virtual image occurs when light rays do not actually meet at the image. This section will cover spherical mirrors. Spherical mirrors can be either concave or convex.In order to understand mirrors, we first must understand light.

mirror physics

The law of reflection says that when a ray of light hits a surface, it bounces in a certain way, like a tennis ball thrown against a wall. The incoming angle, called the angle of incidenceis always equal to the angle leaving the surface, or the angle of reflection.

When light hits a surface at a low angle -- like on a lake at sunset -- it bounces off at the same low angle and hits your eyes full blast, rather than obliquely as when the sun sits overhead.

This is why the sun's glare during the evening and morning is so much more intense than during the rest of the day. Light itself is invisible until it bounces off something and hits our eyes. For instance, a beam of light traveling through space can't be seen from the side until it runs into something that scatters it, like a cloud of hydrogen or a satellite.

This scattering is known as diffuse reflection and this is how our eyes interpret what happens when light hits an uneven surface.

Flat Mirrors

The law of reflection still applies, but instead of hitting one smooth surface, light is hitting many microscopic surfaces. It's more like throwing a handful of marbles against a statue and then guessing the statue's shape based on how the marbles bounce.

Mirrors, however, don't scatter light in this way. With a smooth surface, light reflects without disturbing the incoming image. This is called specular reflection. That concept raises an interesting question: If mirrors preserve the images that hit them, why do they turn left into right and vice versa?

Why not up and down? The truth is that a mirror doesn't really reverse left and right. What mirrors switch is front and back, like a printing press or a rubber stamp.

mirror physics

Imagine writing something on a sheet of paper in dark pen and then holding it up to a mirror. It looks backward, but it also looks the same as if you held it up to a lamp and looked at it from behind. Your mirror image is a light-print of you, not a reflection of you from the mirror's perspective. Mirrors can be more than just flat surfaces. Next up, we'll look at some imaginative ways to use mirrors.

The type of image produced by a flat mirror is called a virtual image.

The Mirror Equation - Concave Mirrors

Even though light is bouncing off the mirror, our eyes are fooled into thinking it's coming out of the mirror in a straight line.The theme of this unit has been that we see an object because light from the object travels to our eyes as we sight along a line at the object.

Similarly, we see an image of an object because light from the object reflects off a mirror and travel to our eyes as we sight at the image location of the object. From these two basic premises, we have defined the image location as the location in space where light appears to diverge from. Ray diagrams have been a valuable tool for determining the path taken by light from the object to the mirror to our eyes.

In this section of Lesson 3, we will investigate the method for drawing ray diagrams for objects placed at various locations in front of a concave mirror. To draw these diagrams, we will have to recall the two rules of reflection for concave mirrors:.

Earlier in this lesson, the following diagram was shown to illustrate the path of light from an object to mirror to an eye. In this diagram five incident rays are drawn along with their corresponding reflected rays. Each ray intersects at the image location and then diverges to the eye of an observer. Every observer would observe the same image location and every light ray would follow the law of reflection.

Yet only two of these rays would be needed to determine the image location since it only requires two rays to find the intersection point. Of the five incident rays drawn, two of them correspond to the incident rays described by our two rules of reflection for concave mirrors.

Because they are the easiest and most predictable pair of rays to draw, these will be the two rays used through the remainder of this lesson. The method for drawing ray diagrams for concave mirror is described below.

The method is applied to the task of drawing a ray diagram for an object located beyond the center of curvature C of a concave mirror. Yet the same method works for drawing a ray diagram for any object location.

Pick a point on the top of the object and draw two incident rays traveling towards the mirror. Once these incident rays strike the mirror, reflect them according to the two rules of reflection for concave mirrors. Mark the image of the top of the object. Repeat the process for the bottom of the object.


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